Attached are a number of lists of international words, physical science, life
science, general interest, prose and verse, together with a number of special
lists from each of the above subjects, showing an advancement from the lists
given in the 3rd Step.
Thread initiated by Jack Beauchamp, January 3, 2004.
Please respond through the Forum -- this was just too long and
detailed to have attached to every reply. -- moderator
2. International Words
An International Language has to be as simple as possible for the learner, and for this reason all words which are truly international are naturally looked on as part of the Basic System. To give a new word in place of one which is common to every language would clearly be foolish. But what is an international word? Or, and this is more to the point, who makes the decision as to what words are international? In the end it is you, the men and women of China, of Japan, of Russia, of Scandinavia, of Africa, who will be the judges. But though the last word will be yours, the first decisions have been made by a smaller body, a representative committee of experts, who have gone through the material with care to get a small group of words which, in their opinion, will not be questioned by most. (Now, the Internet has opened up a great number of other words into international use.) The headings of the lists of international words are given here:
2.0 Time and Numbers (50 words).
2.1 International Names of Address (50 words)
2.2 Metric Units and Metric starts of words for units of 1000's (42 words)
2.3 Names of Sciences (50 words)
3.0 International General Interest Words (100 words)
3.1 International Chemical Element Names (118 words)
3.2 International Commodity Names (100 words)
3.3 Common International Plant and Animal Names (100 words)
3.4 International General Science Words in Common Use (100 words)
The number of these words is 710. That may seem like a great number and the user may not have knowledge of all of these words, but the senses of any words of which he has no knowledge may be gotten in The Basic Words from examples given there. These words are not additions to the 850 words because that are international and most are common knowledge to great numbers of persons all over the earth.
The words listed under the first list (2.0) (50 words) which give the names of days of the week, the names of the months of the year, and the names of the numbers are very necessary for general purposes. If the user does not have knowledge of some of them, they have to be put into memory.
Those listed under (2.1, and 3.0) (150 words) are the most commonly used international words for general purposes. The user probably has some knowledge of most of these words from words of his language which are like them.
Those listed under (2.2, 2.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4) (510 words) are more often used in science and business. Although the user might have some general knowledge of these words because of their common use, most are used in special fields which the user may not have worked in. If the user has an interest in one of those fields, he probably has knowledge of most of the words in his field. It is general not necessary to put into memory words of these lists that are in fields which are not of interest to the user. They will naturally be put into memory if he becomes interested in those fields.
In addition, there are lists of words which are used in special fields of interest which may be important to the user. See parts 4, 5 and 6 for these word lists.
Groups of words which are taken as international are:
2.0 Time and Numbers (necessary) (50):
2.01 Days of the Week:
Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday
2.02 Months of the Year:
January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December.
2.03 Here are the necessary words for Numbers:
0 . . zero (none)(neither)(nor)
1/4 .quarter (-er, -ing, -ed)
1/2 .half (plural halves)
1 . .one (1st = first)(once)(single)(each)(either)(oneself)
2 . .two (2nd = second)(twice)(double)(twin)(both)
3 . .three (3rd = third)(three times)(triple)(triplet)
4 . .four (4th = fourth)
5 . .five (5th = fifth)
6 . .six (6th = sixth)
7 . .seven (7th = seventh)
8 . .eight (8th = eighth)
9 . .nine (9th = ninth)
10 .ten (10th = tenth)
11 .eleven (11th = eleventh)
12 .twelve (12th = twelfth)
13 .thirteen (13th = thirteenth)
14 .fourteen (14th = fourteenth)
15 .fifteen (15th = fifteenth)
16 .sixteen (16th = sixteenth)
17 .seventeen (17th = seventeenth)
18 .eighteen (18th = eighteenth)
19 .nineteen (19th = nineteenth)
20 .twenty (20th = twentieth)
21 .twenty-one (21st = twenty-first)
30 .thirty (30th = thirtieth)
40 .forty (40th = fortieth)
50 .fifty (50th = fiftieth)
60 .sixty (60th = sixtieth)
70 .seventy (70th = seventieth)
80 .eighty (80th = eightieth)
90 .ninety (90th = ninetieth)
100 hundred (100th = hundredth)
1000 thousand (1000th = thousandth)
1,000,000 million (1,000,000th = millionth
2.1 International Names of Address.
International Names of Address.
International Names of Address (These may be used as names of persons or places not give, or when there is more than one of its sort, with the first letter being as short as the other letters) (50):
Admiral, Ambassador, Archbishop, Assembly, Bishop, Director, Captain, Cardinal, Colonel, Commission, Congress, Consul, Corporal, Corporation, Council, Doctor, Embassy, Emperor (Empress), Empire, General, Governor, Justice, King (Queen), Kingdom, Lake, Lieutenant, Lord (Lady), Madam, Major, Marshall, Mayor, Minister, Miss (Ms.), Miss, Misses (Mrs.), Mister (Mr.), Ocean, Parliament, Pope, Premier, President, Prince (Princess), Rabbi, Republic, Reverend, Sargent, Senate (Senator), Sheriff, Sir, Vice-President.
2.11 Names of Persons and Places. The name of a person or a place has the first letter taller than the other letters in the name. Such names are not limited by a word list, but do not have to be kept in memory if they are not important to the user.
2.2 Metric Units and Metric Starts of Words for units of 1000's. The Universal (SI) Measuring System is to be used for all measuring.
2.20 Metric Units (30):
ampere (electric current), becherel (amount of radioactivity), farad (electric capacity), gal (acceleration of free fall), grey (amount of dose absorption), gram (mass), henry (change in magnetic field from change in electric current), hertz (frequency), joule (energy), coulomb (amount of electric charge), kelvin (speed of molecules (absolute temperature), candela (total amount of light given off), lux (absolute amount of light), lumen (relative amount of light), mol (*), meter (length), metric (measuring system based on multiplying its units by units of 10), newtron (force), ohm (electric resistance), pascal (pressure), poise (density times thickness of liquid), radian (plan angle), second (time), semans (electric flow), steradian (solid angle), stokes (thickness of liquid), tesla (magnetic strength), volt (electric potential), watt (power), weber (magnetic flow through an area).
* a mol is the amount of matter (of the same sort) which is in the same number of elemental units (atoms, molecules, electrons, and so on) as there are atoms in 0.056 kilograms of Iron-56. (1.0011631 times greater than a mol based on 0.012 kilograms of carbon-12. Iron-56 has the most stable nucleus). There are 6.0290495 (times 10 to the 23rd power) atoms in a mol (using iron-56 as the base).
2.21 Metric starts of words for units of thousands (12):
(a)atto- . . . = 0.000,000,000,000,000,001 (10-18) . . . (103) 1,000 = kilo- (K)
(f)femto-. . = 0.000,000,000,000,001 (10-15) . . . (106) 1,000,000 = mega- (M)
(p)pico- . . .= 0.000,000,000,001 (10-12) . . . (109) 1,000,000,000 .= giga- (G)
(n)nano-. . = 0.000,000,001 (10-9) . . . . (1012)1,000,000,000,000 = tera- (T)
(u)micro- .= 0.000,001 (10-6) . . . . (1015) 1,000,000,000,000,000 = peta- (P)
(m)milli- . = 0.001 (10-3) . . . . (1018) 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 = exa- (E)
2.3 Names of Sciences (50) (These are normally used with the first letter short, but when talking of that science (as a science), the first letter is made taller than the other letters). (Names ending in -ology may become quality words (adjectives) by making a change in the ending to -ological. Names ending in -ography may become quality words (adjectives) by making a change in the ending to ografic.) (50):
agriculture (agricultural), algebra (algebraic), anatomy (anatomical), anthropology, archeology, architecture, arithmetic, astronomy (astronomical), bacteriology, biochemistry, biology (biological), botany, calculus, chemistry, cinematography, climatology, cosmology, economics (economic), forestry, forensics (forensic), grammar (grammatical), genetics (genetic), geography, geology, geometry, hygiene (hygienic), linguistics (linguistic), logic (logical), logistics (logistic), mathematics, mechanics (mechanical), medicine (medicinal), meteorology, oceanography, paleontology, philosophy (philosophic), phonetics (phonetic), photography (photographic), physics, physiology, politics, psychology, sociology, statistics (statistical), taxonomy (taxomomical), technology, theology (theological), toxicology, trigonometry, zoology.
3. International Word Lists: Lists of international words of different fields of general and special interest:
3.0 International General Interest Words. (This list has been somewhat changed to make it more up-to-date). The words about which the experts have come to a decision are printed in the Basic Words. Because these words are common in most languages, the learner will probably have knowledge of them. (100):
address (-ing, -er, -ed), alphabet (-ic), atom (-ic), automobile, bacteria (-l), bar (barring, barrer, barred), battery, belt (-ing, -er, -ed), bicycle, bomb (-ing, -er, -ed), bond (-ing, -er, -ed), bank (-ing, -er, -ed), broadcast (-in, -er, -ed), bus (bussing, busser, bussed) (autobus), cafe, calendar, casino, center (-ing, -er, -ed), check (-ing, -er, -ed), cigar (cigarette), civilization, club, college, collision, commodity, communication, computing (computer), conservation, continent (continental), corner (-ing, -er, -ed), court, cream (-ing, -er, -ed), cross (-ing, -er, -ed, uncrossed), dance (dancing, dancer, danced), demand (-ing, -er, -ed), deposit (-ing, -er, -ed), drug (drugging, druggist, drugged), eating (eater), electron (-ics, -ic, -ically), element, entertainment, environment (-al), executive, explosive (-ly), fiber (fibrous), film (-ing, -er, -ed), gas (gassing, gasser, gassed), generation, gravity, honor (-ing, -er, -ed), hotel, information, international, internet, jazz, jet (jetting, jetter, jetted), judicial, legal (il-, -ly), legislative, life, magnet (-ic), modern, moral (im-, -ly), museum, nucleus (nuclear), opera, park (-ing, -er, -ed), passport, patent (-ing, -er, -ed), piano, plastic, police, population, post (-ing, -er, -ed), press (-ing, -er, -ed), program (-ming, -mer, -med), radio, restaurant, rock, rocket, salad, screen (-ing, -er, -ed), show (-ing, -er, -ed), sport, study (-ing, student, studied), supply (-ing, supplier, supplied), telephone (telephoning, -er, -ed), television, theater, toilet, trap (-ping, -per, -ped), universe (universal, universally), university, vehicle, violet, virus, visa, web (-bing, -ber, -bed), world, zoo.
3.1 International Element Names. (The Chemical Element names may be used in other fields as needed) (118 Elements) [not listed here].
3.2 International Names (or name parts) of very commonly used plant, animal, and chemical materials in industry. (These names may be used in other fields as needed) (100):
acetate, acetic, acetone, alcohol (-ic), aldehyde, amine, ammonia (ammonium), amyl, anhydride (anhydrous), aromatic, asphalt, barley, bean, beer, beef, benzene, bromide, butyl, cabbage, carbide, carbonate, cement (-ing, -er, -ed), chicken, chloride, chocolate, citrus (citric), coffee, compound (-in, -er, -ed), concrete, corn, crystal (-line), cyanide, dioxide, ester, ether, ethyl, ethylene (poly-), fertilizing (fertilizer), fluoride, gasoline, glycol, ground, hexane, hydrochloric, hydrate, hydrofluoric, hydroxide (hydroxyl), iodide, isopropyl, kerosene, ketone, lettuce, liquor, melon, methane, methanol, methyl, monomer, naphtha, nitrate, nitric, nylon, oat (-s), organic (in-), oxide, paraffin (-ic), peanut, peroxide, pesticide, petroleum, phenol, phenyl, phosphate, phosphoric, plywood, polimer, pork, propyl, propylene (poly-), rye, silicate, sorghum, soybean, spice, spirit (-s), styrene (poly-), sulfate, sulfide, sulfite, sulfuric, tea, thiol, tobacco, toluene, tomato, turkey, urea, vegetable, vinyl, xylene.
3.3 Common International Plant and Animal Names (as different as possible)(100):
almond, amphibian, antelope, armadillo, arthropod, banana, bass, bat, beetle, bug, cactus, carrot, centipede, cheetah, cherry, chimpanzee, clam, cockroach, coral, crab, crane, crocodile, crow, cucumber, deer, dinosaur, dolphin, dove, duck, eagle, elephant, elm, emu, fox, frog, garlic, gibbon, giraffe, goose, gorilla, grape, hawk, hippopotamus, hornet, jaguar, kangaroo, lemon, lemur, leopard, lion, lizard, lobster, locust, louse (lice), mammal, maple, millipede, mole, mouse (mice), mosquito, moss, moth, museum, oak, octopus, olive, onion, opossum, orangutan, ostrich, oyster, palm, panda, parrot, peach, pecan, pepper (-in, -er, -ed), pine, plum, rabbit, reptile, rhinoceros, rose, salamander, salmon, seal, shark, shrew, spider, squid, squirrel, strawberry, tiger, trout, turtle, vine, wasp, whale, wolf, yeast.
3.4 International General Science Words in Common Use. If the learner has an interest in science, he will probably have knowledge of most of these words. (These words may be used in other fields as needed) (100):
absolute (-ly), active (in-, -ly), age, alternate (alternating, -r, -d), area, atmosphere (atmospheric), bubble, bud (-ding, -der, -ded), carbohydrate, case, cell, chaos (chaotic), charge (dis-, charging, -r, -d), collapse (collapsing, -r, -d), constant (in-, -ly), cosmic, decrease (decreasing, -r, -d), difference, dimension (-al), direct (in-, -ing, -or, -ed), dwarf, electricity, ellipse (elliptical), else, energy, epidemic, equation, exact (in-, -ly), experiment (-al), factor (-ing, -er, -ed), flow (-ing, -er, -ed), fraction (-al), frequency, friction, giant, hill (-y), laser, layer (-ing, -er, -ed), image (imaging, -r, -d), imaginary, immunity (immune), index (-ing, -er, -ed), infinity (infinite), infrared, interpretation, length, magnetism, magnitude, matter, metamorphosis (metamorphic), microwave, molecule (molecular), negative (-ly), neutral, object (objective), odd (odds), origin (-al, -ally), particle, percent, perfect (im-, -ing, -er, -ed, -ly), planet (planetary), positive (-ly), pressure (pressuring, -r, -d), prime (-priming, -r, -d), probability, proof, protein, quantity, radiation, random (-ly), real (un-, -ly), relative (-ly), research, resistance (resistant), set, shell (-ing, -er, -ed), solution, speed (-ing, -er, -ed), spin (-ing, -er, -ed), stable (un-, stably), storm (-ing, -er, -ed), stream (-ing, -er, -ed), strength, stress (-ing, -er, -ed), surface, switch (-ing, -er, -ed), symmetry (symmetrical), technical (-ly), temperature, tide (tidal), total (-ly), tube (tubing, -r, -d), ultraviolet, valley, valve, variable, visible (in-, visibly), volume, X-ray.
Happily, much more is international for science than for general purposes. And it is hoped that, in the future, all true science words may become international by agreement, making Basic necessary only as the framework of discussion.
4. General and Special Interests:
The learner who has got so far in the Basic System and is able to make use of it for general purposes may at this point put the question, "Of what use is Basic to me in my special field?" (In addition to the international words which are of interest to the user to have knowledge of), The answer is that by getting 150 more words into his head, making the number up to 1,000, He will have everything necessary for talking about a field of interest (such as science or any other special field). 100 of these words are general field words of value in the discussion of any branch of knowledge. The other 50 are made up from the narrower field in which special interest is taken. If the user has a desire to have knowledge of another special narrow interest in the same general field, he only has to get into memory the 50 words of that other special field. None of these lists have all the English words of a special field, but they are complete enough to make reading the English statements in the field quite clear to the user. They are complete for statements in that field done in Basic. The general and special lists are given here:
4.00 The General Physical Science List (100 words)
. 4.01 Physics - Chemistry (50 words)
. 4.02 Geology (50 words)
. 4.03 Mathematics (50 words)
. 4.04 Meteorology and Climate (50 words)
. 4.05 Astronomy (50 words)
4.10 The General Life Science and Taxonomy List (100 words)
. 4.11 Basic, or International Life Science Complex Word List (50 words)
. 4.12 Biology (50 words)
. 4.13 Medicine (50 words)
. 4.14 Paleontology and Archeology (50 words)
4.20 General Interest, Government, and News List (100 words)
. 4.21 Food and Drink (50 words)
. 4.22 Communication, Transport, and Computers (50 words)
. 4.23 Economics and Business (50 words)
. 4.24 Architecture, Homes and Farms (50 words)
. 4.25 Linguistics and Grammar (50 words)
. 4.26 Sport (50 words)
. 4.27 Arts and Entertainment (50 words)
4.30 The Verse and Prose List (100 words)
. 4.31 The Bible (50 words)
There are 1200 words listed in these general and special lists. These are not necessary to get into memory if the user is not interested in that field. But if the user is interested in a certain field, the words in that field will naturally become part of his knowledge when learning that field of interest. Here are the word lists of the fields of interest given before. Other lists may be made as needed.
4.0 Physical Sciences
4.00 The General Physical Science List has words frequently used in physical science or are common to two or more physical science lists (100):
absorption, adjacent, alpha, altitude, analysis (analytic), application, arbitrary, arch, ash, attraction (attractive), beta, boson, capacity, cast, catalyst (catalytic), circuit (-ing, -er, -ed), column, combination, component, continuous, core, crater, crust, density, determining, deficiency (deficient), drift (-ing, -er, -ed), durability (durable), electromagnetic, evaporation, exclusion (exclusive), explanation, explosion, fault, fermion, filter (-ing, -er, -ed), fission (fissionable), fluid, focus (focal)(-ing, -er, -ed), freezing (freezer), frozen, fusion, gage (gaging, -r, -d), galaxy (galactic), gamma, gluon, half-life, illumination, implosion, inclusion (inclusive), isotope, latitude, lens, lepton, longitude, melt (-ing, -er, -ed), microscope (microscopic), momentum, neutrino, neutron, nova (supernova), opaque, opposition, optical (-ly), path, phase, photon, plasma, pollution, potential, precise (im-, -ly), project (-ing, -er, -ed), projectile, proton, quantum, quark, radioactivity (radioactive), reference, relativity, repulsion (repulsive), rigidity (rigid), seal (-ing, -er, -ed), section (-al, -ing, -er, -ed), sensitivity (sensitive), shadow, similarity (similar), soil (-ing, -er, -ed), spectrum (spectral), spiral, strain (-ing, -er, -ed), substitution, successive, thermometer, thickness, thrust (-ing, -er, -ed), translucent, transparent (-ly), turbine, velocity.
Special Physical Science Fields:
Lists of special physical science fields give 50 words which are special for that physical science together with the "General Physical Science List".
4.01 Physics - Chemistry (50):
abrasion (abrasive), adsorption, beaker, buoyancy (buoyant), chemist, chromatography, concentration, condensate, conductor (conductive)(non-, semi-, super-), corrosion (corrosive), covalent, dilution, distillate, distillation, flammability (flammable), flask, funnel (-ling, -ler, -led), furnace, fume (fuming, -r, -d), gel (-ling, -ler, -led), inert, insulation (insulator), ion (anionic), isomer, mixture, olefin (-ic), oxidizing (oxidizer), pendulum, pH, physicist, plug (-ging, -ger, -ged), purity (im-), reactive, reagent, reducing (reducer), reflux (-ing, -er, -ed), residue (residual), reversible (reversibly), saturated (un-), sheer (-ing, -er, -ed), solvent, suspension, spark (-ing, -er, -ed), spectrometer, tongs, valence, vapor, vortex, wedge,
4.02 Geology (50)
avalanche, birefringence, basalt, caldera, conformity (non-), cave, clay, cleavage, cliff, contour, desert, dike (diking, -r, -d), dip (-ping, -per, -ped), dune, era, erosion, eruption, fan, flint, flood (-ing, -er, -ed), foliation, fracture (fracturing, -r, -d), glacier (glacial), granite, igneous, intercept (-ing, -er, -ed), interpenetration, intrusion, lava, limestone, mantle, mud, ore, outcrop, overlap, plateau, quake, ridge, scarp, sedimentary, shale, schist, shore, sill, slate, texture, trough, volcano (volcanic).
approximation, binary, circumference, cone (conic), congruent, cosine, cube (cubic), cusp, damping (damper), decimal, denominator, differential, digit, divisor, extrapolation, fractal, hyperbola (hyperbolic), integer, integral, interpolation, intersection, inverse, known, (unknown), locust, matrix, mean, multiple, multiplication, node, numerator, oblique, parabola (parabolic), polygon, polyhedron, product, quotient, radius, rational (ir-), ratio, reciprocal, rectangle (rectangular), recurring, remainder, subtraction, sum, spherical, tangent, term, triangle (triangular).
4.031 Mathematical Signs:
. . <, =, >, +, -, *, /, \, #, ?, %, (, ).
4.04 Meteorology and Climate (50):
aridity (arid), arctic (ant-), barometer (barometric), blizzard, chill (-ing, -er, -ed), cirrus, climate (climatic), climb, cloudy, cumulus), cyclone (anti-, cyclonic), damp, doldrum, drizzle, exosphere, exposure, flurry, fog (-gy), forecast (-ing, -er, -ed), frost, gale, gulf, hail, hot, hurricane, humidity (humid), leeward, lightning, marine, moderate (moderating, -r, -d), monsoon, nimbus, oceanic, ozone, radar, rainbow, savanna, shower, sparse (-ly), stormy, stratus, stratosphere (stratospheric), temperate, tornado, torrid, trend, tropic (semitropical, -al), troposphere (tropospheric), tundra, typhoon, windward.
4.05 Astronomy (50):
asteroid, astronomer, astronomical, axis, azimuth, background, binoculars, brightness, celestial, cluster (-ing, -er, -ed), comet, constellation, corona, cosmonaut, crescent, diameter, dopler, globe (globular), gravitation (-al), interferometer, lunar, meteor, meteorite, nebula, observatory, orbit (-al, -ing, -er, -ed), parallax, parsec, planetarium, pole (polar), pulsar, quasar, reflecting (reflector), refracting (refractor), resolution, retrograde, rotation (-al), revolution, satellite, shift (-ing, -er, -ed), solar, solstice, stellar, telescope (telescopic), zodiac.
4.10 The General Life Science and Taxonomy List has words frequently used in life sciences or are common to two or more special life science lists (100)*:
abdomen (-al), algae, amoeba, angiosperm, ape, appendix, archeobacteria, artery, artidactyl, baleen, bladder, brachiapod, carnivore, cartilage, cavity, cenerthran, cephalopod, cholesterol, chordate, chromosome (chromosomal), circulatory, class (-ic), claw (-ed), conifer, crustacean, cycad, dicot, digestive, DNA, duct, ego, endocrine, eubacteria, fin, fern, fungus, echinoderm, enzyme, gene, genus, germ, gingko, gland, gymnosperm, herbivore, hoof (-ed), hormone, host (-ing, -er, -ed), infection, inheritance, insectivore, intestine (intestinal), joint, kidney, lamprey, liver, lobe, lung, marsupial, membrane, metabolism (metabolic), mollusk, monocot, monotreme, nematode, nerve (nervous), omnivore, onicophera, organ, organism, osteicthion, pancreas, parent, parasite (parasitic), passerene, perrisodactyl, phylum, placenta (-l), primate, protist, pulmonary, reproduction (reproductive), respiration, response, RNA, rodent, scale, skull, species, sperm, spine (spinal), spleen, stimulus, thorax (thoracic), thymus, thyroid, tissue, transplant, vein, vertebrate (in-), vitamin.
*4.11 Basic, or International Life Science Complex Words (or make use of the General Life Science and Taxonomy List for names of organisms (-less has the sense: without): (50)
ant-eater, back-bone, baleen-whale, blue-green-algae, black-berry, bone-fish, butter-fly, cat-fish, cat-tail, comb-jelly-fish, dog-fish, earth-worm, even-hoofed, evergreen, flat-fish, flat-worm, flightless-bird, flowering-plant, gold-algae, green-algae, hook-worm, horse-tail, jelly-fish, lady-bug, lobe-fin-fish, lung-fish, meat-eater, mountain-lion, odd-hoofed, peanut-worm, plant-eater, rat-fish, ray-fin-fish, red-algae, red-wood, round-worm, sail-fish, sea-cow, sea-horse, sea-lion, shell-fish, song-bird, sperm-whale, star-fish, toothed-bird, toothed-whale, walking-stick, water-bears, wild-cat, yellow-algae.
Special Life Science Fields:
Lists of special life science fields give 50 words which are special for that life science together with the "General Life Science and Taxonomy List".
4.12 Biology (50)
aerobic (an-), androgen, bark, beak, blastula, brow, clone, creeper, degenerate, dermis, deuterostome, dorsal, epidermis, estrogen, eucariote, fertilizing, flagella, foliage, germinating, gill, glyceride, hemoglobin, juice, mate (mating, -r, -d), mature (im-, maturing, -r, -d), mitochondria, myosis, petal, photosynthesis, platelet, pollen, procariote, protoplasm, protostome, sack, secretion, sepal, serum, shoulder, slide, stain (-ing, -er, -ed), stamin, stock, sucker, symbiosis (symbiotic), tame (taming, -r, -d), ventral, vascular, vestigial.
4.13 Medicine (50)
AIDS, anatomy, antiseptic, anesthetic, antibiotic, antiviral, cancer, capillary, carcinogen, chemotherapy, contamination, contusion, critical (-ly), dentist (dental), depression, diabetes, dialysis, diet (-ing, -er, -ed), dose, exposure, fever, hemmorage, injection, injury (injured), intravenous, manic, neurosis (neurotic), nurse (nursing, -r, -d), operating, paranoid, patient, pill, prescription, prosthesis, psychosis (psychotic), recovery, rehabilitation, retarded, rheumatism, rupture (rupturing, -r, -d), scapula, sickness (sick), surgery (surgeon), schizophrenia, sterile, therapy, toxic, trauma, transfusion, tumor.
4.14 Paleontology and Archeology (50)
allosaur, ammonite, ancient, ancestor, ankliosaur, apitosaurus, archeopteryx, austropithicus, burial, catastrophe, ceratops (pro-, tri-), creodont, decomposition, descendent, eohippus, era, evolution, excavation, extinction (extinct), fossil, fragment (-ary), frozen, icthiosaur, imprint, inscription, lipidasaur, mammoth, mastodon, mosasaur, multituberculate, mummy, ornithopod, placoderm, pleosaur, pottery, predator, preservation, pterodactyl, pterosaur, reconstruction, relic, sauropod, sifting (sifter), stegosaur, survival, theropod, theripsid, tyrannosaurus, treasure, trilobite.
4.20 General Interest, Government, and News List has words frequently talked about in the news or are common to two or more lists under it (100):
accident (-al), agency (agent), arbitration, assault (-ing, -er, -ed), asset, assistant, autocracy (autocrat, autocratic), average (averaging, -r, -d), bail, bill (-ing, -er, -ed), bound (-ing, -er, -ed), budget (-ing, -er, -ed), burglary (burglar), camp (-ing, -er, -ed), case (casing, -r, -d), certificate, character, citizen, claim (-ing, -er, -ed), code (coding, -r, -d), commerce (commercial), conservative (-ly), county, currency, custom (-s), defense, deflation, democracy (democratic), dictator, dot, election, emergency, export (-ing, -er, -ed), fair (un-, -ly), famous (in-, -ly), fence (-ing, -er, -ed), flush (-ing, -er, -ed), foreign, forecast (-ing, -er, -ed), fraud, fund (-ing, -er, -ed), guess (-ing, -er, -ed), habit, handle (handling, -r, -d), hazard (-ous), heavy (heavily), hinge (hinging, -r, -d), hit, home (homing, -er, -ed), hunt (-ing, -er, -ed), hurt, import (-ing, -er, -ed), inflation, infrastructure, kill (-ing, -er, -ed), labor (-ing, -er, -ed), liability, liberal (-ly), license (licensing, -r, -d), manufacture (manufacturing, -r, -d), member, message, missile, monarchy, murder (-ing, -er, -ed), navy (naval), parade (parading, -r, -d), party, perjury, performing (performer), policy, priority, propaganda, race (racing, -r, -d), racket, reference (referencing, -r, -d), rent (-ing, -er, -ed), revenue, saving (saver), schedule (scheduling, -r, -d), security (secure), sentence (sentencing, -r, -d), service (servicing, -r, -d), shot, site, strike, supreme (-ly), territory (territorial), terrorism (terrorist), theft (thief), theocracy, totalitarian (-ism), tragedy (tragic), trial, trigger, victim, vote (voting, -r, -d), web, welfare, wreck (-ing, -er, -ed).
Special General Interest Fields:
Lists of special general interest fields give 50 words which are special for that general interest together with the "General Interest, Government and News List".
4.21 Food and Drink (50):
bacon, bagel, baking (baker), banquet, biscuit, brandy, breakfast, broiling (broiler), bun, cereal, champagne, chop (-ping, -per, -ped), cinnamon, cocktail, cognac, cookie, crack (-ing, -er, -ed), curry, drunk, fry (-ing, -er, -ed), ham, hamburger, herb, lasagna, loaf, lunch, noodle, pasta, pickle (pickling, -r, -d), pie, pizza, pop, pretzel, pudding, raisin, roast (-ing, -er, -ed), rum, sandwich, sauce, sausage, scramble (scrambling, -r, -d), snack, spaghetti, steak, syrup, toast (-ing, -er, -ed), vinegar, vodka, waffle, whiskey.
4.22 Communication, Transport, and Computers (50):
axle, barge, barrel, bulk, cable, canal, car, cargo, chip, click (-ing, -er, -ed), container, data, deck, delivery, dish, disk (diskette), e-mail (-ing, -er, -ed), fax (-ing, -er, -ed), hitch (-ing, -er, -ed), highway, lading, load (un-, -ing, -ed, -ed), lubrication, magazine, modem, pack (-ing, -er, -ed), pallet, pixel, repair (-ing, -er, -ed), robot (-ic, -ics), shop (-ping, -per, -ped), shrink, signal (-ing, -er, -ed), tank (-ing, -er, -ed), taxi, terminal, tire, toll, tractor, traffic, trailer, transfer (-ing, -er, -ed), transistor, truck (-ing, -er, -ed), type (typing, -r, -d), van, video, wear, wrap (-ping, -per, -ped).
4.23 Economics and Business (50):
ambition (ambitious), bankruptcy (bankrupt), broker, buying (buyer), capital (-ism, -ist), circulation, client, collection, commercial, complaint, consignment, consumer (consumerism), cost, cycle, deal, debit, defect (defective), demand (-ing, -er, -ed), discount (-ing, -er, -ed), economy, efficiency (efficient), employee, employer, employment, exploit (-ing, -er, -ed), finance (-ing, financier, -ed), fatigue (-fatiguing, -r, -d), gross, guarantee (guaranteeing, -r, -d), hire (hiring, -r, -d), holding (holder), incorporated, investment, loan (-ing, -er, -ed), margin, monopoly, oligarchy, pension, philanthropy (philanthropic), selling (seller), share (sharing, -r, -d), slavery, social (-ism, -ist), speculation, stock, wholesale, withdrawal.
4.24 Architecture, Homes and Farms (50):
antique, appliance, attic, basement, bush, cabinet, carpenter, closet, conduit, construction, den, dining (diner), electrician, entrance, faucet, foundation, furniture, garage, girder, gutter, hall, hose, insulation, irrigation, joist, kitchen, landscape (landscaping, -r, -d), ledge, mobile, panel (-ling, -ler, -led), pile (piling, -r, -d), pillar, plaster (-ing, -er, -ed), plug (-ging, -ger, -ged), plumbing (plumber), porch, ranch (-ing, -er, -ed), refrigerator, rug, scenery (scenic), sewer, sink, socket, stove, tape (taping, -r, -d), terrace (terracing, -r, -d), tile (-ing, -er, -ed), trash, truss, tub.
4.25 Linguistics and Grammar (50):
accent (-ing, -er, -ed), adjective, adverb (-ial), apostrophe, colloquial, colon, comma, conjugation, conjunction, consonant, dictionary, diphthong, exclamation, feminine, formal (in-, -ly), fricative, gender, glottis, hyphen, inflection, interjection, masculine, modifying (modified), nasal, noun, parenthesis, participle, phoneme, phrase, plural, possessive, predicate, preposition, profane, pronoun, pronunciation, punctuation, schwa, semicolon, semivowel, singular, slang, subject, syllable, tense, uvula, verb (verbal), vocabulary, vowel.
4.26 Sport (50):
balk (-ing, -er, -ed), bait (-ing, -er, -ed), bat (-ting, -ter, -ted), block (-ing, -er, -ed), bounce (bouncing, -r, -d), bunt (-ing, -er, -ed), catch (-ing, -er, -ed), champion, course, cricket, dive (diving, -r, -d), exercise (exercising, -r, -d), game, gate, goal, grid, guard (-ing, -er, -ed), gymnasium, hockey, hurdle, inning, joint, league, losing (loser), oval, pedal (-ing, -er, -ed), pitch (-ing, -er, -ed), polo, pool, rifle, set, skate (skating, -r, -d), ski (-ing, -er, -ed), slump, soccer, stadium, streak, swing, tackle (tackling, -r, -d), tie (tying, tyer, tied), vault (-ing, -er, -ed), victory, winning (winner), yard.
4.27 Arts and Entertainment (50):
action, adventure, ballet, bar, bugle, bust, circus, comedy (comedian), chorus, concert, convention, dice, drama (-tic), drum (drumming, drummer, drummed), easel, exhibition, excitement (exciting), flute, folk, funny, gamble (gambling, -r,-d), guitar, horror, imitating (imitator), juggling (juggler), lounge (lounging, -r, -d), luck (-y), magic (magician), media, microphone, model (-ing, -er, -ed), movie, museum, orchestra, perspective, pornography (pornographic), portrait, percussion, saxophone, scary, scene, sculpture (sculptor), singing (singer), scenery, symphony, tavern, tone (toning, -r, -d), tragic, trumpet, video, violin.
4.30 The Verse and Prose List. This list has words frequently used in verse and prose (100):
angel, aroma, arrow, azure, beast, blind (-ing, -er, -ed), bow, breast, bride, brow, calm (-ing, -er, -ed), cattle, child (children), clever, cock, cool (-ing, -er, -ed), crown (-ing, -er, -ed), curse (cursing, -r, -d), dawn, delight (-ing, -er, -ed), devil, dew, dream (-ing, -er, -ed), emerald, eternal, evening, evil, fair (un-, -ly), faith, fate, feast (-ing, -er, -ed), flock (-ing, -er, -ed), fountain, gentle, glad, glory, god, grace, grief, guest, heaven, hell, herd (-ing, -er, -ed), honey, jealousy (jealous), joy, lamb, lark, meadow, melody, mercy, might, noble (nobly), ox, paradise, passion, pearl, perfume (perfuming, -r, -d), pity (-ing, pitier, pitied), pleasant (un-, -ly), prayer, pretty, pride, priest, praise (praising, -r, -d), purple, rapture, raven, robe, ruby, rush, sapphire, search (-ing, -er, -ed), shining (shiner), shower, sorrow (-ing, -er, -ed), soul, spear, storm, strength, swarm, sword, tan (-ning, -ner, -ned), terror, tower, travel (-ing, -er, -ed), turquoise, twilight, veil, virgin, virtue, vision, wandering (wanderer), wealth, weariness (weary), weeping (weeper), wisdom, worthy, wonder (-ing, -er, -ed),
4.31 The Bible (50):
altar, apostle, ark, ass, ax, baptism (baptist), blessing (blesser), circumcision, creation, creature, deceit, disciple, envy (-ing, envier, envied), flesh, forgiveness, heritage, holy, husband, leaven, leper, master (-ing, -er, -ed), neighbor, oath, passover, people, pillar, preaching (preacher), priest, prophecy (prophet), prostitute, wrath, revelation, righteousness (righteous), resurrection, sacrifice, saint, salvation, savior, scribe, sin (-ning, -ner, -ned), tent, testament, thief, thorn, tribe, widow, wife, witness (-ing, -er, -ed), worship (-ing, -er, -ed), yoke.
5. Science starts and endings of words, [affixes] of Greek and Latin "origin" (100 words). These word starts and endings are commonly used in science work and in some other fields of interest.
5.1 Number Starts, Starts of Chemical Names, Roman Numbers for Valence (33):
1 = mono-, una-, methyl-, I
2 = bi-, bis-, di-, ethyl-, II
3 = tri-, propyl-, isopropyl-, III
4 = tetra-, quadra-, butyl-, isobutyl-, secondary butyl-, tertiary butyl-, IV
5 = penta-, pentyl-, V
6 = hexa-, sexa-, hexyl-, VI
7 = hepta-, septa-, heptyl-, VII
8 = octa-, octyl-, VIII
9 = nona-, ena-, nonyl-, IX
10 = deca-, decyl-, X
11 = undeca-, hendeca-, undecyl-, XI
12 = dodeca-, dodecyl-, XII
13 = trideca-, tridecyl-, XIII
14 = tetradeca-, tetradecyl-, XIV
15 = pentadeca-, pentadecyl-, XV
16 = hexadeca-, hexadecyl-, XVI
17 = heptadeca-, hexadecyl-, XVII
18 = octadeca-, octadecyl-, XVIII
19 = nonadeca-, nonadecyl-, XIX
20 = icosa-, icosyl-, XX
30 = triaconta-, triacontyl-, XXX
40 = tetraconta-, tetracontyl-, XL
50 = pentaconta-, pentacontyl-, L
60 = hexaconta-, hexacontyl-, LX
70 = heptaconta-, heptacontyl-, LXX
80 = octaconta-, octacontyl-, LXXX
90 = nonaconta-, nonacontyl-, XC
100 = centa-, centyl-, C
5.2 Other Science Starts of Words (50):
alkyl- (paraffinic), amino- (amine), ante- (before), anthro- (male), anti- (opposite), aryl- (aromatic), auto- (automatic), bio- (life), bromo- (bromide), chloro- (chloride), cyclo- (circle), cys- (s-)(on this side), ecto- (outer), endo- (inner), ex- (no longer), exo- (side chain, outer), extra- (extra), fluoro- (fluoride), gyna- (female), hydro- (hydrogen), hyper- (most), hypo- (least), in- (not), infra- (lower), inter- (between), intra- (within), iodo- (iodide), iso- (same), macro- (great size), meso- (middle), meta- (m-) (farther than), micro- (small size), n- (normal), neo- (new), nitro- (nitrate), non- (not), ortho- (o-)(straight forward), paleo- (old), para- (p-) (opposite), poly- (more than one), proto- (first), pyro- (fire), semi- (half), sub- (lower), super- (greater), trans- (t-)(on the other side), ultra- (higher), un- (not), zoo- (animal).
5.3 Common Chemical Endings (17) (The Geneva Naming System is used for naming compounds not covered in these lists):
-al (aldehyde), -ane (paraffin), -ase (enzyme), -ate (salt with metal in high valence), -ene (unsaturated hydrocarbon), -gen (not a metal), -ide (salt of metal with one element acid), -ite (salt of metal in low valence), -oic (organic acid), -ol (alcohol), -phobic (having hate for), -on (inert gas), -one (ketone), -phylic (having love for), -yl (organic radical), -ylene (olefin), -yne (triple bond carbon).
6. Other International Words.
6.0 The Metric System (or SI System) is used in most parts of the earth for measuring. The basic units of the Metric System are Length (meter) , Mass (gram) , and Time (second) (a Basic Word). The other units come out of these three units.
6.1 Chemical Names (and Symbols), such as inorganic and organic compounds by "Geneva Naming System".
6.2 "Binomial" Plant and Animal Species Names.
6.3 "Anatomical" Plant and Animal Words.
6.4 Names of Earth Eras and Ages.
6.5 Names of Diseases in the "World Health Organization List".
6.6 All Music Symbols.
6.7 All Law Words of Greek and Latin Origin.