SPELLING for BASIC ENGLISH
English has a long history and comes from a number of older languages. This effect, in part, accounts for English being over-full, that is, there are frequently a number of words to say a like idea. The strongest effects are of Germanic beginnings from the attacks of German groups from the years after the Romans left England and almost equally from the use of French coming from Latin and Greek roots from the Norman Conquest in 1066.
Rules . Full English has a small number of general rules with a great number of things not covered by the guide rules. The Rules frequently are put to use, but are not able to be taken as solid laws. The learner will see that strange spelling is part of English. English sounds do not at all times go with English spelling. Don't fight it, simply learn it. Happily, most of the words selected for Basic do as the rules suggest.
noun - a thing, person, place
verb - an operator saying something is or acts.
adverb - add or change a verb, generally ending with -LY
vowel - letters A, E, I, O, U
consonant - the other letters
long vowel - the letter says its name.
plural - more than one
suffix - added to the end of a word
PLURALS of Nouns.
1 . The regular form is to add -S (cat, cats)
2. a . Add -ES to those words already ending with ending with S. (Do not make addition of two S) (yes, yeses ; glass, glasses)
b . Also add -ES to final "s" sounds -- X, Z, and SH and CH (but not when pronounced "k"). (ax, axes)
3. a. Last letter "Y" is regularly changed to "I" , -IES. (body, bodies)
b. But an ending of vowel-Y keeps the Y and adds -S . (boy, boys)
4. Last letter "O" is not regular, adding either -S or -ES.
5. Last letter "F" or "FE" is not regular.
a . If the plural sound is "F", then add -S. (roof, roofs) (belief, chief, safe, stiff)
b . If the plural sound is "VE, then drop the 'F' and add -VES.
(knife, knives ; leaf, leaves ; self, selves ; shelf, shelves)
6 . IRREGULAR.
7 . Both Singular and Plural.
8 . Numbers and letters add apostrophe S, (5's, C's)
1 . When to double the ending letters before a suffix ?
a . An ending consonant preceded by a short vowel is doubled before a suffix beginning with a vowel, -ED, -ER, -ING, etc. (put, putting)
b . The ending consonant preceded by a long vowel or by two vowels is not doubled. (take, taking)
2 . a. An ending E is dropped before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel : -ED , -ER , -EST, (never double the "e") -ING (take taking, takes) (but - see, seeing, sees)
b. The ending E is keep when adding a suffix beginning with a consonant. (love, loves, lovely)
a . -LY is normally added. (Double an ending "L". beautiful, beautifully))
b . but do not make three ending "L". (full, fully)
A rule learned by all English talking school boys and girls. It shows how complex spelling is able to be. Even with this rule, there are things not covered.
1 . ' "I" before "E" except after "C" or when sounded like "A" as in "neighbor" or "weigh." '
These words agree with the rule : eight , receipt , weight
Not true : science
2 . a . Ending with "consonant-Y" is normally changed to I before a suffix beginning with a vowel, -IED, or with -S becoming -IES. (see earlier)
b . but the ending Y is kept when adding -ING. (Do not put two "i".)
c . Ending "vowel-Y" keeps the Y before adding -S (boy, boys)
ADVANCED RULES and EXCEPTIONS.
There are many little rules and exceptions..
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About this Page: spell.html -- Some history and rules about spelling in English.
Last updated April 10, 2005
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